Urinalysis is not a new concept. It's been around for a long time and is a test that an average person can do at home, in a village clinic, or anywhere. The easiest form to use are Urine Dipsticks.
For my healthcare experiment, I chose Multistix. These diagnostic dipsticks give me an overall view of my internal health. Specifically these strips test Glucose, Bilirubin, Ketone, Specific Gravity, Blood, pH, Protein, Uribilinogen, Nitrite, and Leukocytes. Instructions for use come with the Multistix package. There is test interpretation available on the Internet or in books, if you want to diagnose yourself. My Resources page might be helpful.
Good Luck on your DIY Healthcare Journey. I wish you well. Say hi as you pass me by. :-)